There are supposedly over 39 places in the Americas that show signs of  a pre-Clovis presence. The Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas is one of those.It was dated using luminescence dating or OSL, a form of dating ancient materials that entails analyzing minerals by calculating when they were last exposed to the light.Usually we are more familiar with carbon dating, which is different than OSL because it achieves its results by looking at organic materials.At the Buttermilk Creek site tons of artifacts have been discovered that can support the claims of the age of the site.”More than 50 well-formed artifacts as well as hundreds of flakes and fragments of chipping debris were embedded in thick clay sediments immediately beneath typical Clovis material”(Wilford,2011). In Monte Verde, Chile there is evidence of groups that hugged the coast of the continent that have dates of over 14,000 years old.In South Carolina there are  recent findings that could indicate a pre-Clovis presence of over 50,000 years ago.clovis-pointsThe Clovis were a prehistoric Native American culture that lived around 13,500 years ago, so to find any evidence of cultures that date before this is extraordinary.Archaeologists have to support theses claims with facts to gain support for further funding. First archaeologists find chert chippings,sometimes around a natural deposit. These groups would come back year after year to quarry stones to make their tools. Next they dig and sift through a chronological  time frame that consist of  finds ranging from spear points, tools, polished hematite and some organic material , such as fire hearths.There is little need to question the dates of these sites if there is proper research from credible scientists taking place.All of these findings as a collective whole suggest that there was an earlier migration than what has widely been accepted .Wernecke and Collins from the Gault School of Archaeological Research sum up the many findings with dates of 8 great examples predating Clovis culture found all over the world.”These are: 1) widely dispersed sites in the grasslands of North America, dating 18,000 to 14,000 cal BP, where humanly-modified mammoth remains are found in the absence of stone projectile points; 2) sites near the late glacial ice front in North America, dating ca. 14,000 cal BP, where proboscidean remains are found associated with stone flake tools and a worked bone projectile point, but no stone projectile points; 3) “Paleocoastal” sites from southern Chile to the channel islands of California, dating from 14,500 to 12,000 calBP, with a mix of terrestrial and marine resources associated with a broad array of stone tool forms including projectile points at some sites; 4) sites along the western margin of the hemisphere from Alaska to Chile where long, narrow, thick projectile points occur with non-blade tool assemblages between 14,500 and 10,000 cal BP; 5) one dated site [ca. 23,000 cal BP], one undated site, and six undated, isolated finds of large Laurel-leaf-like, bipointed bifaces from submerged and subaerial sites in the mid-Atlantic region; 6) sites distributed widely in eastern North America and dated from 21,000 to 14,000 cal BP that all share thin, lanceolate, unfluted projectile points and all but one also share prismatic blades; 7) sites with diverse lithic assemblages of unifaces, bifaces, and often blades and some with stone projectile points, dating between 15,500 and 13,200 cal BP in south central North America; 8) lithic assemblages lacking projectile points but having other kinds of chipped stone tools distributed widely in South America outside of the Amazon Basin and mostly dating 14,000 to 13,000 cal BP with two outliers dating greater than 30,000 cal BP”( Wernecke and Collins ,2016). So without a doubt there is a presence that predates current Beringian migration models and opens up the discussion to the origins of man with new and exiting theories of how he has evolved and thrived in the Americas for a really, really long time.

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Wernecke, D.C. ,Collins, M.B.(2016). Institute for Archaeological Studies: Pre-Clovis in the Americas Conference Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://prehistoricterritory.org/pre-clovis-in-the-americas-conference-smithsonian-institution-washington-d-c/

Wilford,J. N.(2011). Spear Points Found in Texas Dial Back Arrival of Humans In America. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/science/25archeo.html

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