When the British went to Papua New Guinea the introduced the machete, the number of deaths skyrocketed in wars among neighboring tribes.Chagnon states in his theory that blood revenge may be the leading cause of violence in tribal warfare.According to Chagnon blood revenge is the retaliatory killing conducted by close kinsman seeking revenge for their fallen member of the group. Chagnon uses research based on conflicts found in the Yanomamo tribes, who live in the Amazon between  the Venezuela and Brazilian borders. Chagnon argues that there are causes stemmed from social and sexual conflicts that create tensions, which are the root of blood revenge. Most fights begin over sexual issues : infidelity and suspicion of infidelity, attempts to seduce another man’s wife , sexual jealousy, forcible appropriation of women from visiting groups , failure to give a promised girl in marriage , and (rarely) rape.(Chagnon,1988).

Brian Ferguson states that motivation for retaliation can be malleable. The decision to retaliate is a tactical one, a part of the process of war, rather than its cause .Ferguson seems to be unsure of Chagnon’s ideas surrounding behavior and maximizing inclusive fitness Ferguson seems to seek clarification on Chagnon’s opinion regarding reproduction amongst the Yanomamo. Chagnon’s statements do seem to be a bit confusing with the statement “Although there are customs and general rules about proper behavior, individuals violate them regularly when it seems in their interest to do so” (Chagnon, 1988).  Is Chagnon stating in this passage that conflicts will be violated regardless of rules or law simply because it is in a person’s interest? If blood revenge is stemmed from things like sexual infidelity or failed promises of marriage then there is always an option to resolve a conflict in civilized societies.”Jungle” ethics and civilized ethics may differ, with different causes for conflicts and /or solutions.

In regards to natural selection persuading warfare in Yanomamo culture, yes it could possibly be a cause. Adapting to the environment can enhance the circle of life. If all the proper variables are inline then reproduction can occur. In aquariums, guppies in particular, we can see that if the right conditions are present then the fish will reproduce respectively. If there is one variable missing, for example the temperature of the water ,or no cover to hide from predators , then the fish will go into a desperate mode , producing premature babies in an effort to quickly continue their existence. It is my opinion that humans may act in the same manner Overprotecting the women and children or sending them away during conflicts represents this innate strategy that allows populations to flourish under the perfect conditions.

These perfect conditions compiled with sexual related rewards or motivations stemmed from warfare, could possibly increase the populations of these tribes. In the case of war in Iraq war has been instilled into the minds of this civilization before biblical times. Many are essentially raised to die for a cause. The conditions of Iraq, the Fertile Crescent, and the history of religion all make up the perfect environment for war. Human activity has manipulated areas like Afghanistan and Iraq through natural selection. Life expectancies are less in many cases due to a life chosen to be a suicide bomber rather than concentrating on aid, assistance, and progress.

The perfect environment is manipulated causing people to live under ground, live in fear, but it also can make a person stronger as well. However I do feel that when comparing natural selection between Iraq and tribes of the Amazon,  that there are more determining factors present in the Amazon like the environment, which may create the need to be violent, and a diversity of ethics which may justify violent behavior in these cultures. In all, these cultures may have adapted themselves to where they all depend on warfare as a means to have some sort of exclusive justice. We can never be  completely certain that we come out of the womb ready to fight if so we would be like the Hyena, trying to inflict damage on our siblings while learning to crawl.Man decides to go to war for whatever need, reason or desire so which they choose.





Ferguson, Brian (1989) American Ethnologist .Do Yanomamo Killers Have More Kids? Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/645275

Napoleon, Chagnon (1988). Life Histories, Blood Revenge, and Warfare in Tribal Population.Retrieved from Proquesthttp://search.proquest.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/pqcentral/docview/213529803/141F4E92B0B5A6B270C/1?accountid=32521